Defining Fuzzy Sets

Fuzzy Operations

Fuzzy Decisions

Fuzzy Engineering


History and Objections


Defining Fuzzy Sets

    In mathematics a set, by definition, is a collection of things that belong to some definition. Any item either belongs to that set or does not belong to that set. Let us look at another example; the set of tall men. We shall say that people taller than or equal to 6 feet are tall. This set can be represented graphically as follows:


    The function shown above describes the membership of the 'tall' set, you are either in it or you are not in it. This sharp edged membership functions works nicely for binary operations and mathematics, but it does not work as nicely in describing the real world. The membership function makes no distinction between somebody who is 6'1" and someone who is 7'1", they are both simply tall. Clearly there is a significant difference between the two heights. The other side of this lack of disctinction is the difference between a 5'11" and 6' man. This is only a difference of one inch, however this membership function just says one is tall and the other is not tall.

    The fuzzy set approach to the set of tall men provides a much better representation of the tallness of a person. The set, shown below, is defined by a continuously inclining function.


    The membership function defines the fuzzy set for the possible values underneath of it on the horizontal axis. The vertical axis, on a scale of 0 to 1, provides the membership value of the height in the fuzzy set. So for the two people shown above the first person has a membership of 0.3 and so is not very tall. The second person has a membership of 0.95 and so he is definitely tall. He does not, however, belong to the set of tall men in the way that bivalent sets work; he has a high degree of membership in the fuzzy set of tall men.

Defining Fuzzy Sets Mathematically

    Fuzzy sets were first proposed by Lofti A. Zadeh in his 1965 paper entitled none other than: Fuzzy Sets. This paper laid the foundation for all fuzzy logic that followed by mathematically defining fuzzy sets and their properties. The definition of a fuzzy set then, from Zadeh's paper is:

    Let X be a space of points, with a generic element of X denoted by x. Thus X = {x}.

    A fuzzy set A in X is characterized by a membership function fA(x) which associates with each point in X a real number in the interval [0,1], with the values of fA(x) at x representing the "grade of membership" of x in A. Thus, the nearer the value of fA(x) to unity, the higher the grade of membership of x in A.
                                                                from Fuzzy Sets, by Lofti A. Zadeh

    This definition of a fuzzy set is like a superset of the definition of a set in the ordinary sense of the term. The grades of membership of 0 and 1 correspond to the two possibilities of truth and false in an ordinary set. The ordinary boolean operators that are used to combine sets will no longer apply; we know that 1 AND 1 is 1, but what is 0.7 AND 0.3? This will be covered in the fuzzy operations section.

    Membership functions for fuzzy sets can be defined in any number of ways as long as they follow the rules of the definition of a fuzzy set. The Shape of the membership function used defines the fuzzy set and so the decision on which type to use is dependant on the purpose. The membership function choice is the subjective aspect of fuzzy logic, it allows the desired values to be interpereted appropriatly. The most common membership functions are shown below:


Fuzzy Sets