Wednesday, August 23, 2006
Singular ‘they’ in the KJV
Geoff wrote that ‘The pronoun form they is anaphorically linked in the discourse to this person. Such use of forms of they with singular antecedents is attested in English over hundreds of years, in writers as significant as Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, Austen, and Wilde. The people (like the perennially clueless Strunk and White) who assert that such usage is “wrong” simply haven’t done their literary homework and don’t deserve our attention.’
But Geoff left out the single most compelling example. ...
Deuteronomy 17:5 - ‘Then shalt thou bring forth that man or that woman, which have committed that wicked thing, unto thy gates, even that man or that woman, and shalt stone them with stones, till they die.’
Bookshelf: ‘Romance Languages and Linguistic Theory’ and ‘The Order of Prepositional Phrases’
Saturday, August 05, 2006
‘On Language’ 8/2: Too much ‘meta’?
Too much meta. That’s what Sam McManis wrote earlier this year in the Sacramento Bee, talking about the just-released movie “Tristram Shandy: A #### and Bull Story.” The movie is “a movie about making a movie of an 18th Century comic novel that was about the conventions of novel writing,” McManis explained.
“How very meta it all is,” he added.
That’s right: “meta.” The prefix has now taken its place as a separate word in the English language.
Tuesday, August 01, 2006
Writing and Linguistic Change in Catalan
Some connections between linguistic change and the written language: The behavior of speakers aged 3 to 20
Language Variation and Change
Volume 18, Number 1 (March 2006), pp. 15-34
After the Franco dictatorship, written Catalan started to be taught officially in the schools of Catalonia. This teaching has involved a change in some phonetic, morphological, and lexical habits, especially among speakers schooled in Catalan as a first language. The present study shows a linguistic change process observed in Northwestern Catalan linguistic communities. Its focus is the study of absolute initial prestressed vowels spelled which have traditionally been uttered with solution [a] in forms such as encara ‘yet’ or estudi ‘study’. The population analyzed is the one that is receiving or has received the biggest influence from written language: speakers between 3 and 20 years of age. The data obtained allows us to observe a phonetic change directly connected to writing.
Tuesday, July 25, 2006
Verb types in Hemingway vs. Johnson
Monday, July 24, 2006
Bookshelf: ‘The Syntax of Early English’ and ‘Gender Shifts in the History of English’
Friday, June 30, 2006
‘any’: problem with that
There is no single Dutch morpheme which corresponds exactly to English any and the correct mapping from Dutch to English is a complicated many-to-many relation. Consider the representative examples in (24) through (36), which have been obtained from Dutch newspapers and books and native speaker informants (NSI).
Three Cheers, and Two Articles, for Descriptivism
Analyzing Eggcorns and Snowclones, and Challenging Strunk and White (New York Times on Language Log) (more)
Dean of arts and letters explores ‘bad language’ (Ashland Daily Tidings on Edwin Battistella)
‘On Language’ 6/21 - Some advice about advice
“In an effort to make the world a better place, I cleave to Conan the Grammarian’s Three Rules of Correcting Others,” writes best-selling language maven Richard Lederer, a.k.a. “Conan the Grammarian,” in a cover article in Verbatim, a Chicago-based language magazine.
His first: “Are you right?”
Second: “Will it make a difference?”
If the answer to both questions is “yes,” Lederer concludes, then you may proceed to the third rule: “Do the correcting in private.”
Lederer’s three rules are fairly simple and straightforward, but to me, they illustrate the flaws of the entire enterprise of giving grammatical advice. “Says who?” is always an appropriate response to Lederer’s first question, because what he means by “Are you right?” amounts to this: Do manuals on English usage and style recommend the correction you’re about to make?
But usage manuals are seldom written by linguists, who actually study how language works. The manuals tend to make subjective, selective and shaky suggestions. The authors pass off their own personal preferences or folk customs as gospel truth.
Arnold Zwicky, a linguist at Stanford University, writes at his Web site that linguists’ “foundational assumptions diverge strikingly from those of the advice literature at almost every turn.”
He cautions, “The advice literature on language is [merely] advice, comparable to advice on diet, exercise, gardening, child rearing, relationships, and the like.” ...
Proverbs 27:4: Aramaic 1, Septuagint 0
Selections from Proverbs 27 - Part 3
Verse 4 is as follows in Hebrew: Wrath is cruel and anger is overwhelming, and who can stand before jealousy? In the Septuagint it reads: Wrath is merciless and anger is sharp, but jealousy can bear nothing. In the Peshitta the verse reads: Wrath is impudent and anger is violent, and who is the one who can stand before jealousy? The general sense of the verse is clear—that jealousy is even worse than anger—but the versions differ somewhat in the details. Especially, in the second half of the verse, the Septuagint differs from the Hebrew text and from the Peshitta, since it makes “jealousy” the subject, rather than the object of the verb. This difference is difficult to explain, because the syntax of the Hebrew text is clear. At some points, particularly in poetry, the subject and the object in Hebrew may be difficult to distinguish, but that is not the case here. Clearly the translator of the Peshitta has understood the verse better than has the translator of the Septuagint. The Septuagint’s translation makes understanding the verse more difficult than necessary.
There are other points of interest in this verse. The word translated “jealousy” in all three versions is also the word translated “zeal.” continued…
Friday, June 16, 2006
Idiom-less threat from Iranian president?
“Ahmadinejad did not say he was going to wipe Israel off the map because no such idiom exists in Persian,” remarked Juan Cole, a Middle East specialist at the University of Michigan ...
Monday, June 12, 2006
Bookshelf: ‘The Syntax of Spanish’
Thursday, June 08, 2006
‘On Language’ 6/7: Frisian: language of my ancestors, sibling to English
With a vague sense of ethnic pride, a vaguer sense that I owed it to my great-grandfather and a complete ignorance of the Frisian language, I attended the 50th and final Frisian worship service in Grand Rapids, Mich., last month. For me, the service hammered home a key distinction about my own ethnicity. I usually say that my ancestors were Dutch. But my great-grandfather, who immigrated to the U.S. in 1890, might have objected to that claim. Technically, he was Frisian, and for Frisians, that is more than just a technicality. Friesland is a province of the Netherlands along that country’s northern coast, but dating back to the ancient days when it was a vast kingdom and maritime power, it has always been its own country, in a way. The Frisians are one of the oldest ethnic groups in Europe and one of the most doggedly independent. A famous Frisian slogan is “Frysk en Frij,” meaning “Frisian and Free.” The Frisian language also represents a piece of linguistic trivia: Old Frisian was the closest relative of Old English, its sibling in the West Germanic language family. Linguists tend to say that in its earliest days, English used to sound a lot like German. But it’s closer to the truth to say that English used to sound a lot like Frisian. So as a Frisian descendant and an aspiring linguist, I had two good reasons to attend the final Frisian-language worship service in Grand Rapids, where an annual Frisian service has been held since 1957 in an area church. ...
Tuesday, June 06, 2006
GBooks on German
Google Books links for some books on German:
History of the German Language Through Texts
by Thomas Gloning, Christopher Young
The German Language Todayby Charles V J Russ
Modern German Pronunciation: An Introduction for Speakers of English
by Christopher Hall
GBooks on OE
Google Books links for some books on Old English:
The Syntax of Early English
by Olga Fischer, Ans van Kemenade, Willem Koopman, Wim van der Wurff
The Cambridge Old English Reader
by Richard Marsden
Old English Biblical Verse: Studies in Genesis, Exodus and Daniel
by Paul G. Remley
Invitation to Old English and Anglo-Saxon England
by Bruce Mitchell
The Beowulf Reader: Basic Readings
edited by Peter S Baker