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Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237)
Peter Betten

Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237)

The Rosette Nebula, otherwise known as Caldwell 49, is a large spherical H II region located near the end of a giant molecular cloud in the Monoceros region of the Milky Way Galaxy. NGC 2237 is a small region of the nebula, containing a bit of the cluster and the cloud, but is just considered part of the nebulous region. NGC 2237 is shown above, revealing part of the star cluster on the left as well as the red dust clouds in the center of the image and off to the right.

The Rosette Nebula is approximately 5,000 light years from earth, and approximately 130 light years in diameter. Young stars within the nebula emit radiation which excite atoms around them, causing those atoms to in turn emit radiation themselves, which produces the vibrant colors of the nebula seen in the image above. The Rosette Nebula is estimated to have a mass of approximately 10,000 solar masses.

A recent Chandra study of the cluster NGC 2237, provides the first probe of the low-mass stars in this satellite cluster. Previously only 36 young stars had been discovered in NGC 2237, but the Chandra work has increased this sample to about 160 stars. The presence of several X-ray emitting stars around the pillars and the detection of an outflow originating from a dark area of the optical image indicates that star formation is continuing in NGC 2237. By combining these results with earlier studies, the scientists conclude that the central cluster formed first, followed by expansion of the nebula, which triggered the formation of the neighboring clusters, including NGC 2237.

[For more on the star cluster on the left side of theRosette nebula, see the page of fellow student Jonathan Wiedman.]


“Rosette Nebula.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 May 2018,

Administrator, NASA Content. “The Rosette Nebula.” NASA, NASA, 30 Mar. 2015,

 Phelps, Randy L.; Ybarra, Jason E. (2005). "A Parsec-Scale Outflow in the Rosette Molecular Cloud?". The Astrophysical Journal627 (2): 845–849. 

 Ybarra, J. E.; et al. (2013). "THE PROGRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN THE ROSETTE MOLECULAR CLOUD". Astrophysical Journal769 (2): 140. 

Right Ascension (J2000) '06:30:54.00
Declination (J2000) +05:02:52.0'
Filters used B (Blue), R (Red), V (Green)
Exposure x number of images for each filter B (120s x 6); V, and R (120s x 3)
Image dimension 1092x736 pixels; 23.8x16.1 arcminutes
Date/time observed March 18 and 19, 2018, 12:05 UT
Distance 5219 Light Years (Wikipedia, Rossete Nebula)
Scale 0.064 pc/arcminute



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