[an error occurred while processing this directive]
Calvin Observatory
Weather Forecast
Cool Images
Observing Request
External Links
Related Links
Wildrik Botjes Planetarium
Physics & Astronomy Department

Astr110 Photography Projects, Fall 2005

Previous imageUp to Astr110 IndexNext image

Bubble Nebula, Krista Krygsman

Bubble Nebula

The Bubble Nebula was born of a massive bright blue star which is emitting a fast stellar wind of ionized gas. The star within the bubble (BD+602522) is 40 times more massive than our Sun and produces a stellar wind moving at 2,000 kilometers per second. This bubble is the smallest of three bubbles that surround the star. As the gas expands off the star, it pushes the more sparse gas surrounding it into a shell, constraining it by the surrounding material. The shell glows because of the energetic starlight which ionizes the shell. The surface of the bubble is not smooth or uniform. This is because the shell encounters regions of cold gas as it expands outward, which are a different density. This causes the surface to arrest by differing amounts leaving a rippled appearance. The wind progresses less in the southwest direction than the northeast direction, which offsets the central geometric center of the bubble with the central star.

The image taken by the Calvin-Rehoboth robotic telescope shows a circular structure surrounding a bright star and clouds of red hydrogen gas. You can see how the bubble is ‘thicker’ in the areas where the solar winds come into contact with the clouds of the hydrogen gas. The Bubble Nebula is about 10 light years across and is 7,100 light-years from the earth and resides in the Cassiopeia Constellation.




Right Ascension (J2000) 23:20:00
Declination (J2000) 61:14:06
Filters used blue(B), green(V), red(R), and clear(C)
Exposure time per filter 300 seconds in C, 60 seconds in BVR
Date observed

November 6, 2005 (RV)
November 9, 2005 (C)

November 16, 2005 (B)