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In the early and high Middle Ages, agriculture was aiming for variety in crops, and not specialization. The primary goal was to feed oneself and the lord. Of course, the surplus could be sold, but in general, a production primarily aimed at selling agricultural goods would not evolve until the 1400s. Farms generally cultivated a combination of wheat, vegetables, animal husbandry, fruit trees, vinification, fishing, and hunting. Bread and wine (or beer in the northern regions) were the main staple crops.

Between c. 900-1150, a series of agricultural innovations took place, such as the change from a two-field system of crop rotation to a three-field system. At the same time, the heavy plow replaced the lighter "scratch plow", allowing more efficiency in farming large pieces of land and increasing the areal of cultivated land throughout Europe. A greater variety of crops was planted; the main staple crop now became legumes (beans) instead of grains (barley and wheat).
  Email Prof. Frans van Liere   Calvin College