Surface ice forms when temperatures go below 0°C (32°F)
and excess water on the ground surface freezes.
may occur any time between September and May, but they are most
common from mid-December through mid-March (see Temperature).
The water that freezes
- waves splashing onto
a frozen beach
- winter rain events
- freezing rain and
- meltwater from snow
In the winter, unlike
other seasons, water may not be able to drain quickly into the sand
because frozen ground causes the water to remain at the surface.
The water often collects in low areas on the beach and depressions
Above and below:
A layer of ice coats the ground where waves splashed onto the beach
before the coastal ice built up along the shoreline. At the time
of the photos, coastal ice prevents more waves from reaching the
subaerial beach. (Hoffmaster State Park in January 2005.)