Lake Michigan coastal dunes experience a humid midlatitude climate,
with precipitation throughout the year. The average annual precipitation
recorded at Muskegon, MI, is 89 cm (33 inches) with an average of
290 cm (114 inches) of snow in the winter months.
sand movement directly by producing wet, snow-covered, or ice-covered
surfaces, each decreasing the amount of sand movement. Rain is often
part of the autumn storms that bring strong winds to the dunes,
so the winds are not as effective as they would be with drier sand.
are given in water equivalents (w.e.): the amount of water obtained
by melting the snow. The water equivalent is approximately 1/10
the height of the snow.
1971-2000 monthly normals as published in the
Climatography of the United States No. 20 available from
the National Climatic Data Center at www.ncdc.noaa.gov.