As a time of peace began with the Persians in 448 BC, Pericles undertook
an ambitious plan to rebuild the Acropolis. First the Parthenon was built in 438 BC.
Then the Propylaea, the Temple of Athena Nike, and the Erecthion
followed. For the next four hundred years, the Acropolis change little.
A staircase was added by emporer Claudius in AD 52 and the Beule Gate was built
during the 3rd century. After the Edict of Theodosius II, Justinian turned the
buildings of the Acropolis into churches.
In the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, the possession of the Acropolis changed
hands many times and its buildings were used as citadels and palaces for the dukes
and military officials who held it. In the mid 17th century, the Propylaea, used as a powder
magazine, was damaged when it was struck by lightening. A short while later,
the Temple of Athena Nike was completely removed to make way for the placement
of artillery. A short while later, cannon balls and carelessness managed
to destroy much of the Parthenon, which had stood intact for the last
2000 years. In the 19th and 20th centuries, an era of restoration and